GATE GG Syllabus 2025: Geology & Geophysics

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Explore the comprehensive GATE Geology and Geophysics (GG) syllabus for 2025 to kickstart your exam preparation and achieve success.

geology and geophysics gg gate papers

GATE GG Syllabus 2025 – GATE 2025 exam will be conduct by IIT, Roorkee on dates 1, 2 and 8, 9 February, 2025.

Here we have provided latest Geology and Geophysics syllabus & paper pattern for GATE 2025 aspirants. All candidates with Geology and Geophysics subject are advised to download this latest syllabus before starting their GATE 2025 exam preparation.

GATE 2025 Highlights

GATE 2025 Conducting BodyIIT, Roorkee
GATE 2025 Exam Date 1, 2, 8, 9 February, 2025
GATE 2025 Total Subjects 30
GATE 2025 Exam Mode ONLINE Computer Based Test (CBT)
GATE 2025 Exam Duration 3 hours (180 minutes)
GATE 2025 Total Questions 10 (GA) + 55 (subject)= 65
GATE 2025 Total Marks 100
GATE 2025 Question Type MCQ, MSQ, NAT

GATE Geology & Geophysics Engineering Paper Pattern 2025

Paper SectionsMarks Distribution
Subject Questions85% of the total marks.
General Aptitude15% of the total marks.

GATE Geology & Geophysics Engineering Syllabus 2025 PDF

General Aptitude Syllabus (Common to all papers) [pdf] Download
GATE Syllabus for Geology and Geophysics (GG) [pdf] Download

GATE Geology and Geophysics Syllabus for Common Sections 2025

Earth and planetary system
Terrestrial planets and moons of the solar system
Size, shape, internal structure, and composition of the earth
Concept of isostasy
Elements of seismology – body and surface waves, propagation of body waves in the earth’s interior
Heat flows within the earth
Gravitational field of the Earth
Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism
Continental drift
Plate tectonics – relationship with earthquakes, volcanism, and mountain building
Continental and oceanic crust – composition, structure, and thickness
Weathering and soil formation
Landforms created by rivers, wind, glaciers, oceans, and volcanoes
Basic structural geology
Stress, strain, and material response
Brittle and ductile deformation
Nomenclature and classification of folds and faults
Basic crystal symmetry and concept of point groups
Silicate crystal structure and determinative mineralogy of common rock-forming minerals
Petrology of common igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks
Geological time scale
Geochronology and absolute time
Stratigraphic principles
Major stratigraphic divisions of India
Mineral, coal, and petroleum resources of India
Introduction to remote sensing
Engineering properties of rocks and soils
Elements of hydrogeology
Principles and applications of gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic, seismic, and radiometric methods of prospecting
Introductory well logging

GATE Geology Syllabus 2025

Topic Subtopics
Geomorphology Geomorphic processes and agents Development and evolution of landforms in continental and oceanic settings Tectonic geomorphology
Structural Geology Forces and mechanisms of rock deformation Primary and secondary structures Folds, faults, joints, and unconformities Interpretation of geological maps
Crystallography and Mineralogy Elements of crystal symmetry, form, and twinning Crystallographic projection Crystal chemistry Classification of minerals Physical and optical properties of rock-forming minerals
Geochemistry Cosmic abundance of elements Geochemical evolution of the Earth Geochemical cycles Isotopic evolution of the crust and the mantle Geochemistry of water and water-rock interaction
Igneous Petrology Classification, forms, textures, and genesis of common igneous rocks Magmatic differentiation Phase diagrams Mantle plumes, hotspots, and large igneous provinces
Sedimentology Texture, structure, and sedimentary processes Petrology of common sedimentary rocks Sedimentary facies and environments Provenance and basin analysis
Metamorphic Petrology Structures and textures of metamorphic rocks Physico-chemical conditions of metamorphism Metamorphism of different rock types Thermobarometry and metamorphic P-T-t paths
Paleobiology Diversity of life through time Mass extinctions Taphonomy Taxonomy and morphology of invertebrates, microfossils, vertebrates, and paleobotany Concepts of ecology/paleoecology
Stratigraphy Principles and concepts of stratigraphy and correlation Lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and chronostratigraphy Sequence stratigraphy Stratigraphy of India
Resource Geology Ore mineralogy and ore forming processes Coal and petroleum geology Marine mineral resources Prospecting and exploration of economic mineral deposits Ore dressing and mineral economics
Global Tectonics Plate motions and boundaries Supercontinent cycles
Applied Geology Physico-mechanical properties of rocks and soils Rock index tests and failure criteria Rock mass classifications Geological factors in construction Analysis of slope stability Natural hazards and mitigation Principles of climate change
Hydrogeology Groundwater flow and exploration Well hydraulics and water quality
Basic Principles of Remote Sensing Energy sources and radiation principles Atmospheric absorption Aerial-photo interpretation Multispectral remote sensing Digital processing of satellite images GIS concepts and operations

GATE Geophysics Syllabus 2025

Topic Subtopics
Solid-Earth Geophysics Earth as a planet, different motions of the earth, gravity field of the earth, Clairaut’s theorem, size and shape of earth, geomagnetic field, paleomagnetism, Geothermics and heat flow, seismology and interior of the earth, variation of density, velocity, pressure, temperature, electrical and magnetic properties of the earth
Geodesy Gravitational Field of the Earth, Geoid, Ellipsoid, Geodetic Reference Systems, Datum, Everest (1830) and WGS 84 (1984) systems, GPS and DGPS, Leveling, and Surveying
Earthquake Seismology Elements of elasticity theory- stress and strain tensors, Generalized Hooke’s Law, Body and Surface Waves, Rotational, dilatational, irrorational and equivolumnal waves, Reflection and refraction of elastic waves, Homogeneous and evanescent waves and bounded waves, Eikonal Equation and Ray theory, earthquakes-causes and measurements, magnitude and intensity, focal mechanisms, earthquake quantification, source characteristics, seismotectonics and seismic hazards, digital seismographs, Earthquake statistics, wave propagation in elastic media, quantifying earthquake sources from seismological data, Elements of Seismic Tomography
Potential and Time Varying Fields Scalar and vector potential fields, Laplace, Maxwell and Helmholtz equations for solution of different types of boundary value problems in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates, Green’s theorem, Image theory, integral equations in potential and time-varying field theory
Gravity Methods Absolute and relative gravity measurements, gravity meters, Land, airborne, shipborne and bore-hole gravity surveys, Tensorial Gravity sensors and surveys, various corrections for gravity data reduction (free air, Bouguer and isostatic anomalies), density estimates of rocks, regional and residual gravity separation, principle of equivalent stratum, data enhancement techniques, upward and downward continuation, derivative maps, wavelength filtering, preparation and analysis of gravity maps, gravity anomalies and their interpretation (anomalies due to geometrical and irregularly shaped bodies), depth rules, calculation of mass
Magnetic Methods Elements of Earth’s magnetic field, units of measurement, magnetic susceptibility of rocks and measurements, magnetometers and magnetic gradiometers, Land, airborne and marine magnetic and magnetic gradiometer surveys, Various corrections applied to magnetic data, IGRF, Reduction to Pole transformation, Poisson’s relation of gravity and magnetic potential field, preparation of magnetic maps, upward and downward continuation, magnetic anomalies due to geometrical and irregularly shaped bodies, Image processing concepts in processing of magnetic anomaly maps, Depth rules, Interpretation of processed magnetic anomaly data, derivatives, analytic signals, and Euler Depth solutions Applications of gravity and magnetic methods for mineral and oil exploration
Electrical Methods Conduction of electricity through rocks, electrical conductivities of metals, nonmetals, rock forming minerals and different rocks, concepts of D.C. resistivity measurement and depth of investigation, Apparent Resistivity and Apparent Chargeability, Concept of Negative Apparent Resistivity and Negative Apparent Chargeability, Theory of Reciprocity, Sounding and Profiling, Various electrode arrangements, application of linear filter theory, Sounding curves over multi-layered earth, Dar-Zarrouk parameters, reduction of layers, Triangle of anisotropy, interpretation of resistivity field data, Principles of equivalence and suppression, self-potential method and its origin, Electrical Resitivity Tomography (ERT), Induced polarization, time and frequency domain IP measurements, interpretation and applications of SP, resistivity and IP data sets for ground-water exploration, mineral exploration, environmental and engineering applications
Electromagnetic Methods Geo-electromagnetic spectrum, Biot Savart’s Law, Maxwell’s Equation, Helmholtz Equation, Basic concept of EM induction in the earth, Skin-depth, elliptic polarization, inphase and quadrature components, phasor diagrams, Response function and response parameters, Ground and Airborne Methods, measurements in different source-receiver configurations, Earth’s natural electromagnetic methods-tellurics, geomagnetic depth sounding and magnetotellurics, Electromagnetic profiling and Sounding, Time domain EM method, EM scale modeling, processing of EM data and interpretation, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Methods, Effect of conducting overburden, Geological applications include groundwater, mineral environmental and hydrocarbon exploration
Seismic Methods Elastic properties of earth materials, Reflection, refraction and CDP surveys, land and marine seismic sources, generation and propagation of elastic waves, velocity – depth models, geophones, hydrophones, digital recording systems, digital formats, field layouts, seismic noise and noise profile analysis, optimum geophone grouping, noise cancellation by shot and geophone arrays, 2D, 3D and 4D seismic data acquisition, processing and interpretation, CDP stacking charts, binning, filtering, static and dynamic corrections, Digital seismic data processing, seismic deconvolution and migration methods, attribute analysis, bright and dim spots, seismic stratigraphy, high resolution seismics, VSP, AVO, multi-component seismics and seismic interferometry, Reservoir geophysics- Rock Physics and Petrophysics, Geophysical Survey Design
Geophysical Signal Processing Sampling theorem, Nyquist frequency, aliasing, Fourier series, periodic waveform, Fourier and Hilbert transforms, Z-transform and wavelet transform, power spectrum, delta function, autocorrelation, cross correlation, convolution, deconvolution, principles of digital filters, windows, poles, and zeros
Geophysical Well Logging Principles and techniques of geophysical well-logging, SP, resistivity, induction, gamma ray, neutron, density, sonic, temperature, dip meter, caliper, nuclear magnetic resonance- longitudinal and transverse relaxation, CPMG sequence, porosity characterization, cement bond logging, micro-logs, Pulsed Neutron Devices and spectroscopy, Multi-Array and Triaxial Induction Devices, Quantitative evaluation of formations from well logs, Logging while drilling, High angle and horizontal wells, Clay Quantification, Lithology and Porosity Estimation, Saturation and Permeability Estimation, application of borehole geophysics in groundwater, mineral and oil exploration.
Radioactive Methods Prospecting and assaying of mineral (radioactive and non-radioactive) deposits, half-life, decay constant, radioactive equilibrium, G M counter, scintillation detector, semiconductor devices, application of radiometrics for exploration, assaying and radioactive waste disposal
Geophysical Inversion Basic concepts of forward and inverse problems, Ill-posedness of inverse problems, condition number, non-uniqueness and stability of solutions, L1, L2 and Lp norms, overdetermined, underdetermined and mixed determined inverse problems, quasi-linear and nonlinear methods, including Tikhonov’s regularization method, Singular Value Decomposition, Backus-Gilbert method, simulated annealing, genetic algorithms, swarm intelligence, machine learning, and artificial neural networks, Statistics of misfit and likelihood, Bayesian construction of posterior probabilities, sparsity promoting L1 optimization, Ambiguity, and uncertainty in geophysical interpretation

GATE Geology & Geophysics Engineering Guidance

GATE Geology & Geophysics Syllabus & Exam Pattern FAQs

What is the syllabus for GATE Geology & Geophysics?

The syllabus for GATE Geology & Geophysics includes subjects like Geomorphology, Structural Geology, Paleontology, Petrology, Stratigraphy, Mineralogy, Geophysics, Mathematical Methods, and General Aptitude. It covers various aspects of geological and geophysical sciences.

Is the GATE Geology & Geophysics syllabus subject to change?

The core subjects of the GATE Geology & Geophysics syllabus remain relatively stable. However, it's important to check the official GATE website for any updates or changes in the syllabus before starting your preparation.

Are there any specific topics within each subject that are more important for GATE Geology & Geophysics?

While the entire syllabus is important, some topics carry more weightage than others. For example, in Geophysics, topics like seismic methods, gravity and magnetic methods, and electrical methods are crucial.

In Geology, topics like structural analysis, stratigraphic principles, and mineralogy are significant.

What is the exam pattern for GATE Geology & Geophysics?

The GATE Geology & Geophysics exam consists of a total of 65 questions, with a duration of 3 hours. The question paper is divided into two sections: Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) and Numerical Answer Type (NAT) questions.

MCQs carry 1 or 2 marks each, while NAT questions carry 1 or 2 marks each. There is negative marking for incorrect answers in MCQs.

Is there a specific weightage assigned to each subject in the GATE Geology & Geophysics exam?

No, there is no specific weightage assigned to each subject. The distribution of questions can vary from year to year.

However, it is generally observed that questions related to core subjects like Geophysics, Geology, and Mathematical Methods have a significant presence in the exam.

Are there any recommended books or resources to cover the entire GATE Geology & Geophysics syllabus?

Some popular books for GATE Geology & Geophysics preparation include 'Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy' by Sam Boggs Jr., 'Structural Geology' by Haakon Fossen, 'Introduction to Geophysics' by Philip Kearey, 'Mineralogy' by Dexter Perkins, and 'Mathematical Methods in the Physical Sciences' by Mary L. Boas. Additionally, previous years' question papers and study materials from reputed coaching institutes can be helpful.

Are there any specific reference books for numerical problem-solving in GATE Geology & Geophysics?

Yes, books like 'Introduction to Geophysical Fluid Dynamics' by Benoit Cushman-Roisin and Jean-Marie Beckers and 'Mathematical Methods in Geophysical Imaging' by Lluís Guasch and Michael J. Piana can provide insight into numerical problem-solving in Geophysics.

Is it necessary to study Mathematics and Statistics for the GATE Geology & Geophysics exam?

Yes, Mathematics and Statistics are an integral part of the GATE Geology & Geophysics syllabus.

Topics such as calculus, linear algebra, probability, and statistical analysis are included. It's essential to allocate sufficient time for studying and practicing mathematics and statistics concepts.

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  1. Hello sir i cant find out any information about geology and geophysics gate reference book please sir give some book name which will helpful for me in geology.

  2. Hi,can you tell me what qualifications are required for writing Gate:Geology & Geophysics exam
    I am a BE-ECE graduate,will i be eligible to sit for GG Gate 2016

  3. Iam currently in 1st year msc geology. I had done my 12 th from pure science background without maths.
    I want to know that am I eligible for writing gate exam? on qualifying gate will I get a job or will I be eligible for studying in iit?

  4. why dont we have gate exam for petrolem engineering students?
    why isint this issue being taken seriously???

    • Hello MARTINA,

      GATE exam was earlier only for getting admission into ME/M tech courses but from when GATE score is being used by PSUs, little modification has become important in this exam. So, it will take some time to be modified may GATE office introduce GATE paper in petroleum engineering from 2016 examination.

      Feel free to ask if you need any help in future & join us @ Google+ / Facebook for getting regular updates.

  5. What syallbus should be prepared for petroleum engineering either geology and geophysics or engineering sciences? Please give better tips as it is very difficult to prepare chemical engineering subjects for petroleum engineering gate exam


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